Intraoperative monitoring, or IOM, is a technique used during surgery to monitor the condition of a patient’s nervous system throughout the surgical procedure. Monitoring the condition of the nervous system while the patient is asleep under general anesthesia helps prevent damage to the spinal cord, brain, or nerves. Therefore, the use of intraoperative monitoring reduces the risk of surgery-related nerve damage. IOM is often used during procedures such as spine or brain surgery, where surgical complications may cause a loss of neurological function. Intraoperative monitoring of nerves is also referred to as intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring or intraoperative neuromonitoring. Evolving research in area of neuromonitoring has allowed the advancement of cutting edge neurosurgical techniques and helps us ensure the best possible outcomes.